FAQs

¿Cuándo es el período de garantía para la exportación de productos chinos a los mercados internacionales?


Answer: in China, we supply 12-month as warranty time for the customers, the date time is started to count from the machine installed and acceptance checked. As for instruments exported to international market, it is 15-month for warranty time, but it is started to count from the shipping time, the shipping time will be declared and found on the bill of loading or airways.


Pregunta 2.¿Quién inventó el método de ensayo de los materiales?


Answer: It is acceptable that Mr. Hugh M. Rockwell (1890–1957) and Mr. Stanley P. Rockwell (1886–1940) from Connecticut in the United States co-invented the "Rockwell hardness tester," a differential-depth machine. They applied for a patent on July 15, 1914.[4] The requirement for this tester was to quickly determine the effects of heat treatment on steel bearing races. The application was subsequently approved on February 11, 1919, and holds U.S. Patent 1,294,171.


Pregunta 3.¿Cuál es la diferencia entre roquewell y superficie?


A fundamental distinction is made between two types of Rockwell method: Regular Rockwell (or Rockwell) and Superficial Rockwell (or Super Rockwell):


1. Rockwell: The perforce (or p reload) is always 10 kgf, while the total test force (also referred to as main force or load) can vary between 60, 100, or 150 kgf.
2. Super Rockwell: The perforce is 3 Kgf, while the main force can vary between 15, 30, or 45 Kgf.


Método de ensayo Rockwell Super Rockwell
Fuerza de frenado 10 kg. 10 kg. 10 kg. 3.000 pies cúbicos. 3.000 pies cúbicos. 3.000 pies cúbicos.
Fuerza principal 150 kg. 100 kg. 60 kg. 45 kg. 30 kg. 15 kg.



La dureza máxima de loew se puede convertir en dureza de loew, y viceversa.El método aparentemente Loft se inventó en los Estados Unidos, donde su uso es mucho más común que en Europa.Se aplica en particular a las pruebas de dureza de los componentes delgados y la capa fina o a las muestras utilizadas para calcular valores de dureza superiores a la norma normal de los Lores.


Rockwell and Superficial hardness testing shall be performed in accordance with the latest revision of ASTM E18.

There are two general classifications of the Rockwell test: the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness test. In the Rockwell hardness test the preliminary test force is 10 kgf. Total test forces are 60 kgf, 100 kgf and 150 kgf. In the Rockwell superficial hardness test, the preliminary test force is 3 kgf and total test forces are 15 kgf, 30 kgf, 45 kgf. The indenter of either test shall be of spheroconical or spherical configuration The standard indenters are the diamond spheroconical and tungsten carbide ball indenters' 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 inch in diameter. Annex 3 or A3. STANDARDIZATION OF ROCKWELL INDENTERS, covers the requirements of indenters to be used. The dust, dirt, grease and scale shall not be allowed to accumulate on the indenter as this will affect the test. Anvils used for indention’s must be suitable for specimen. Cylindrical pieces shall be tested with a V-grooved anvil Flat pieces shall be tested on a flat anvil, whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of the indenter. The anvils shall be clean and smooth and free from pits, scratches, dust, dirt and grease. The anvil and indenter shall be set properly by running two tests not used in calculations.

The test specimens shall be clean and prepared in a way that alteration of the surface hardness is minimized. Flat specimens' surfaces should be flat and parallel to indenter and anvil. The thickness of the test piece or of the layer under test should be as dictated in Table 7, 8, 9, and 10 of ASTM E18. The general rule, is the thickness should be 10 times the depth of the indenter. For tests on convex cylindrical surfaces the corrections given in Tables 11, 12, 13, and 14 of ASTM E18 shall be applied.

Place the specimen on the proper anvil and bring the indenter in contact with specimen until the machine engages the minor load. This indicates machine is ready for reading and will give automatic readout. There should be a minimum 3 readings per sample and 4 readings for bolt testing. Each reading should be a distance of three times the diameter of the indenter apart. Take an average of the readings for the final result. If technician believes that a reading is not representative of material an additional 3 readings can be used to replace the one.

Before each test using a different scale, start of a day, or change of indenter the machine will be calibrated using NIST traceable hardness blocks. This calibration will be logged and recorded using hardness block limits with an average of three readings for each test block.   After testing the final report will include Rockwell hardness number, scale used, and readings to nearest the whole number by rounding in accordance with ASTM E29.


¿Cuál es la aplicación de las pruebas de dureza de la superficie?


En el experimento Loews, la dureza se determinó midiendo la profundidad relativa de dos marcas cuidadosamente controladas, una sobre la otra.


First a Minor Load (one of a lesser force) is applied to a steel ball or sphere—conical diamond perpetrator. Then, while the Minor Load is still being applied, a Major Load (one of greater force) is applied at a precisely controlled rate. The Major Load is removed and the hardness determination is displayed.


The hardness determination obtained represents the additional depth to which the Major Load has indented the test specimen beyond the initial indentation of the application of the Minor Load. The displayed indication is proportionally inverse, e.g. the higher the displayed determination of hardness, the shallower the indentations, therefore the harder the material.


In the regular (R) Rockwell scale, the Minor Load is is 10 kgf and the Major Load may be 60, 100, or 150 kgf. In the superficial scale (S), the Minor Load is 3 kgf and the Major Load may be 15, 30, or 45 kgf.


To ensure accuracy and consistency, the Major Load is under precise control and the Penetrate are manufactured to specific tolerances. Each point of hardness on the regular (R) scale is 0.00008 inch and 0.00004 inch on the superficial (S) scale, making the need for precise control of the applied forces and precision manufacture of the Penetrate readily apparent.


Escala de los Lores


Roquewell (r) General scale Applications
Símbolo de escala Penetrate
Carga principal (secundaria) Aplicación típica
A Diamante cónico 60 kg (10 kg) • aleaciones rígidas, acero laminado y acero rígido superficial superficial
B 1 / 16. 100 kg (10 kg) • aleación de cobre, acero blando, aleación de aluminio, hierro forjado
C Diamante cónico 150 kg (10 kg) • acero de titanio templado
D Diamante cónico 100 kg (10 kg) • acero laminado, acero rígido de superficie media, perlas forjadas
E Bola 1 / 8. 100 kg (10 kg) • hierro fundido, aleación de aluminio, aleación de magnesio, cojinetes de metal
F 1 / 16. 60 kg (10 kg) • aleaciones de cobre refractarias y chapas metálicas finas y blandas
G 1 / 16. 150 kg (10 kg) • fósforo, bronce, berilio, cobre y hierro forjado (g92 + daña las balas perforantes)
H Bola 1 / 8. 60 kg (10 kg) • zinc plomo al aluminio
K Bola 1 / 8. 150 kg (10 kg) • rodamientos metálicos, relativamente suaves, delgados y plásticos (referencia ASTM d7851) que utilizan bolas más pequeñas y la mayor potencia y no producen el efecto del yunque
Yo Bola 1 / 4. 60 kg (10 kg)
Arroz Bola 1 / 4. 100 kg (10 kg)
P Bola 1 / 4. 150 kg (10 kg)
R 1 / 2 "bola" 60 kg (10 kg)
S 1 / 2 "bola" 100 kg (10 kg)
V 1 / 2 "bola" 150 kg (10 kg)

08.01) Standard Test Methods for Plastics and Electrical aislamiento Materials loew


Escala de los Lores


Roquewell (S) superficial Application
Símbolo de escala Penetrate
Carga principal (secundaria) Aplicación típica
Newton. Diamante cónico 15 kg (3 kg) Los valores de superficie se aplican a los materiales que no son suficientemente anchos o espesor para someterlos a prueba a una escala convencional de la dureza de R R.Estos suelen ser: muestras o materiales de muy fina placa metálica, Correa metálica, alambre de espino pequeño, acero nitroso, acero al carbono de baja permeabilidad, acero al cianuro pesado, chapa de estaño u otras configuraciones similares.
Newton. Diamante cónico 30 kg (3 kg)
Newton. Diamante cónico 45 kg (3 kg)
15 toneladas. 1 / 16. 15 kg (3 kg)
30 toneladas. 1 / 16. 30 kg (3 kg)
45 toneladas. 1 / 16. 45 kg (3 kg)
15 vatios. Bola 1 / 8. 15 kg (3 kg)
30 vatios. Bola 1 / 8. 30 kg (3 kg)
45 vatios. Bola 1 / 8. 45 kg (3 kg)
Quince veces. Bola 1 / 4. 15 kg (3 kg)
Treinta veces. Bola 1 / 4. 30 kg (3 kg)
45 veces. Bola 1 / 4. 45 kg (3 kg)
15 años. 1 / 2 "bola" 15 kg (3 kg)
30 años. 1 / 2 "bola" 30 kg (3 kg)
45 años. 1 / 2 "bola" 45 kg (3 kg)

Dureza de Lorenzo


El medidor de prueba de la escala C (aleación dura) se utiliza para ensayar una aleación rígida en la escala a de la dureza de Loj, que requiere una tolerancia de ± 0,20 grados.La dureza de las aleaciones duras se mide mediante penetradores "a" brale especialmente diseñados, de conformidad con los requisitos de la ASTM B 294 y la Asociación de fabricantes de aleaciones duras (CCPA).


In addition to the 60 kgf Major Load required for carbide A Scale testing, the Scale C testers also include 100 and 150 kgf capabilities.